For full details regarding the formatting of manuscripts, please see the JBI Style Guide or the JBI Instructions for Authors.

Ensuring your paper conforms to Journal of Bioethical Inquiry style will increase the speed of the reviewing and copy-editing processes and reduce overall time to publication. Please follow all instructions carefully.

In-Text Citations


Do not add a comma between author last name(s) and year of publication. Include all authors for sources with three (3) or fewer authors, using a serial comma before the “and.” If a source has four (4) or more authors, list the last name of the first author following by “et al.” Use a semicolon, not a comma, between listings of multiple sources.

Type Example
One Author (Smith 1998)
No Date or In Press (Smith n.d.) or (Smith forthcoming)
Two Authors (Smith and Jones 2000)
Three Authors (Smith, Jones, and Johnson 2007)
Four or More Authors (Smith et al. 1998)
Same Authors, Same Year (Smith and Jones 2000a, 2000b)
Same First Author, Same Year
(Include secondary authors as needed or add shortened title in quotation marks)
(Smith, Jones, et al. 2007)
(Smith, Williams, et al. 2007)
(Smith et al., “Giant Snails,” 2007)
(Smith et al., “Foreign Invaders,” 2007)
Multiple References (Smith 1998, 2001; Jones 2004)
Direct Quotations

Direct quotations must include page or paragraph (¶) numbers in in-text citations. Use double quotation marks for direct quotations and for words or phrases used in a special sense. Use single quotation marks for quotations within quotations. Direct quotations longer than forty (40) words should be set off clearly in an indented paragraph; quotation marks are not used for these longer block quotes.

Type Example
Single Page (Smith 1998, 22)
Multiple Pages (Smith 1998, 22–23)
Nonconsecutive Pages (Smith 1998, 22–23, 35)
Multiple References (Smith 1998, 22; Jones 2004, 5)
Unpaginated Electronic Work (Smith 1998, ¶6)
(Smith 1998, para. 6)
(Smith 1998, under “The Battleground”)
(Jones 2004, ¶3 under “Methods”)
Personal Communication (John Smith, pers. comm.)
E-Mail Message (John Smith, e-mail message to author, February 28, 2010)
Section Number (Smith 1998, sec. 24)
Equation (Smith 1998, eq. 87)
Volume Referenced (Smith 1998, vol. 2)
Volume Plus Page (Smith 1998, 2: 345)


Please list references at the end of the manuscript:

  • Use a hanging indentation (not hard returns and tabs)
  • Alphabetize by author last name
  • Use initials with periods for given and middle names, with no space in between
  • Place first author’s initials after the last name; all others precede the last name
  • Do not place year in parentheses
  • Use “Sentence case” for all titles listed in references
  • Do not place quotation marks around titles
  • Spell out the full name of journals (capitalizing “The” if part of the official name)
  • Italicize journal names and titles of books
  • List volume AND issue number for journal references
  • Do not condense page spans (256–277, not 256–77)
  • Use en-dashes for page spans (256–265, not 256-265)
Academic Journals
Type Example
One Author Smith, J.M. 1998. The origin of altruism. Nature 393(1): 639–640.
With DOI Friedman, J.W., and C. Mezzetti. 2001. Learning in games by random sampling. Journal of Economic Theory 98(1): 1–25. doi:10.1006/20002694.
2–6 Authors Bodenheimer, T., K. Grumbach, and R.A. Berenson. 2009. A lifeline for primary care. The New England Journal of Medicine 360(26): 2693–2696.
6+ Authors Owen, G.S., G. Szmuckler, G. Richardson, et al. 2009. Mental capacity and psychiatric in-patients: Implications for the new mental law in England and Wales. The British Journal of Psychiatry 195(3): 257–263.
Online Fanelli, D. 2009. How many scientists fabricate and falsify research? A systematic review and meta-analysis of survey data. PLoS One 4(5): e5738. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0005738.
No Issue Loomis, C.C. 1960. The structure and sympathy in Joyce’s “The dead.” PMLA 75: 149–151.
Month as Issue Muldoon, D.D. 1987. Daily life of the mountain rapper. Journal of the West 26(March–April): 14–20.
Season as Issue Myers, N., and R. Tucker. 1960. Deforestation in Central America: Spanish legacy and North American consumers. Environmental Review 19(Spring): 55–71.
No Volume Meyerovitch, E. 1959. The Gnostic manuscripts of Upper Egypt. Diogenes, no. 25: 84–117.
ePub Ahead of Print ten Have, M.T., A. van der Heide, J.P. Mackenbach, and I.D. de Beaufort. 2012. An ethical framework for prevention of overweight and obesity: A tool for thinking through a programme’s ethical aspects. European Journal of Public Health. ePub ahead of print, August 8. doi:10.1093/eurpub/cks052.
Forthcoming Smith, J., and B. Jones. Forthcoming. Article title goes in here. Journal Name 103(2).
No Date Cherry, K. No date. How to become a psychologist. Accessed April 6, 2011.
Public Media
Type Example
Newspaper Niederkorn, W.S. 2002. A scholar recants on his “Shakespeare” discovery. The New York Times, June 20, Arts section, Midwest edition, 1a–2a, 4a.
Magazine Martin, S. 2002. Sports-interview shocker. The New Yorker, May 6, 10–12, 15.
Online Reeves, J. 2001. A weighty issue: Ever-fatter kids. Interview with James Rosen. Time, March 14. Accessed April 3, 2010.
Unsigned The New York Times. 2002. In Texas, ad heats up for race for governor. July 30, 5b.
Book Review Gorman, J. 2002. Endangered species. Review of The last American man, by E. Gilbert. The New York Times Book Review, June 2, 22–23.
Presentation Doyle, B. 2002. Howling like dogs: Metaphorical language in Psalm 59. Paper presented at the annual international meeting for the Society of Biblical Literature, June 19–22, in Berlin, Germany.
Website Google. 2009. Google privacy policy. Last modified March 11. Accessed June 2, 2013.
Weblog Posner, R. 2010. Double exports in five years? The Becker-Posner Blog, February 21. Accessed January 11, 2011.
Comment Leppek, C. 2008. The orphanage. Chaosicon Blog, comment posted June 11. Accessed March 20, 2012.
Type Example
One Author Doniger, W. 1999. Splitting the difference: Gender and myth in Ancient Greece and India. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
2–6 Authors Laumann, E.O., J.H. Gagnon, R.T. Michael, and S. Michaels. 1994. The social organization of sexuality: Sexual practices in the United States. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
6+ Authors Churchill, R., P. Ferguson, S. Godinho, et al. 2013. Teaching: Making a difference. Sydney: John Wiley & Sons.
Multiple Editions Kerridge, I., M. Lowe, and C. Stewart. 2009. Ethics and law for the health professions, 3rd ed. Annandale, NSW: Federation Press.
Electronic Austen, J. 2007. Pride and prejudice, Kindle ed. New York: Penguin Classics.
Online Kurland, P.B., and R. Lerner, eds. 1987. The founders’ Constitution. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
Translated Bourdieu, P. 1990. The logic of practice. Translated by R. Nice. Stanford: Stanford University Press. Originally published as Les sens pratique (Paris: Les Éditions de Minuit, 1980).
Editor or Translator as Author Lattimore, R., trans. 1951. The Iliad of Homer. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
Editor or Translator with Author Bonnefoy, Y. 1995. New and selected poems. Edited by J. Naughton and A. Rudolf. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
Chapter in an Edited Book Wiese, A. 2006. “The house I live in”: Race, class, and African American suburban dreams in the postwar United States. In The new suburban history, edited by K.M. Kruse and T.J. Sugrue, 99–119. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
Preface or Forward Rieger, J. 1982. Introduction to Frankenstein; or, The modern Prometheus, by Mary Wollstonecraft Shelley, xi–xxxvii. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
Thesis or Dissertation Amundin, M. 1991. Click repetition rate patterns in communicative sounds from the harbour porpoise, Phocoena phocoena. PhD dissertation, Stockholm University.