For full details regarding the formatting of manuscripts, please see the JBI Style Guide or the JBI Instructions for Authors.

Ensuring your paper conforms to Journal of Bioethical Inquiry style will increase the speed of the reviewing and copy-editing processes and reduce overall time to publication. Please follow all instructions carefully.

Manuscript Formatting

Please save the main body of your manuscript as a Microsoft Word .doc file (not .docx). Supplemental materials can be saved in other formats such as TIFF, GIF, JPEG, EPS, PPT, PICT, Excel, Tar, and Postscript (for figures). However, Editorial Manager does not accept PDFs.

Font, Margins, and Spacing

  • Times New Roman, 12-point font
  • 1 (one) space (not two) following ending punctuation between sentences
  • 1.5 line spacing (and remove all padding Word adds before/after paragraphs)
  • Left-justification (“align text left”)
  • Standard/reasonable margins (e.g., 1 inch on all sides)
  • 1 (one) space before and after ellipses but no (0) spaces before and after en- and em-dashes
  • No more than six (6) footnotes

Title Page

The title page should be formatted as follows (please include the headings in brackets and pay attention to bolding and case):

[issue] [category] Add Category Name Here
[title] Add a Main Title Here Using Title Case
[subtitle] If Applicable, Add a Subtitle Here Using Title Case
[author(s)] First A. Last; Second B. Last

[author details] F. A. Last [corresponding author] Name of Affiliated Organization
City, State/Province Postal Code COUNTRY

S. B. Last
Name of Affiliated Organization
City, State/Province Postal Code COUNTRY

Abstract Add full abstract in here. Abstracts should be about 150–200 words.

Keywords Xxxxxx; Xxxxxx; Xxxxxx; Xxxxxx; Xxxxxx; Xxxxxx
Keywords should be separated by a semicolon and employ “Sentence case.”
For example: Bioethics; Informed consent; End-of-life issues; Advance directives


Use title case and capitalize the principal words, including prepositions and conjunctions of four or more letters. Also, please note: the word “is” is a verb and should be capitalized in titles.

  • Manuscript Title (bold)
    Example: Art and Bioethics: Shifts in Understanding Across Genres
  • Section Heading 1 (bold)
    Example: Arts and Bioethics Programs
  • Section Heading 2 (plain text)
    Example: Arts and Bioethics Program, Croatia 2008
  • Section Heading 3 (italics)
    Example: The Exhibition


The JBI now publishes all papers using Oxford’s “British & World English” for spelling and hyphenation but punctuates according to The Chicago Manual of Style (e.g., double quotation marks, periods and commas inside quotation marks, etc.). Please consult both references (and the JBI Instructions for Authors) for assistance.

  1. Please use Oxford Dictionaries: British & World English.
    • Always use the first accepted spellings of words.
    • For example, “recognize” instead of “recognise,” etc.
    • Please note, you likely will have to look up many words. Please consult the print or online version of the Oxford dictionary, and do not rely on Microsoft Word’s spelling.
  2. Hyphenate compound words according to the Oxford dictionary (e.g., neo-liberal, non-compliance, socio-economic, etc.).
    • Again, you likely will have to look these up. Please do not rely on Microsoft Word’s spelling.

NOTE: Keep original spelling in all direct quotes and references.

Abbreviations and Spellings of Certain Words

  • Use jargon and abbreviations sparingly, stating in full at first use:
    • The Journal of Bioethical Inquiry (JBI) is a peer-reviewed publication.
  • “healthcare” (one word per Oxford)
    • Healthcare is a human right.
    • She is a healthcare professional.
  • “well-being”
  • Apostrophes
    • the three Rs
    • the 1600s (not the 1600’s)
    • the ’80s (not the 80’s)
  • U.S. or U.K. is an adjective, not a noun:
    • U.S. courts use the principle of stare decisis.
    • The United States has three branches in its federal government.
  • Use a lowercase “w” and “e” for the following:
    • web, website, web page, e-mail, and so forth
    • Exception: capitalize World Wide Web and Internet


Use the serial comma throughout (except when it is not used in the original text of direct quotations or in titles cited in references). Commas always go inside quotations marks.

  • I bought sugar, flour, and milk at the store.
  • He likes apples, macaroni and cheese, and quinoa.
  • When asked about the concept of “informed consent,” the patient indicated she had never heard of this term.

Periods always go inside quotation marks.

  • When asked about the concept of “informed consent,” the patient said she “did not understand this term.”

Add a space before and after an ellipsis.

  • Here is an example of … an ellipsis.

Do not capitalize the first word after a semicolon.

  • Bioethics is interdisciplinary; however, it is rooted in …

Capitalize the first word after a colon if the first word is a proper name or the colon introduces a series of sentences or questions (see CMOS § 6.64).

  • The key to NGO success: genuine international work.
  • The recession has hit hard: five banks failed today.
  • Some bioethicists have earned star-status: Arthur Caplan often is interviewed on national news in the United States.
  • Bioethicists have several choices: Should we be relegated to reactionary roles? Or should we secure the barn door before the horse has run wild?

Hyphenate phrasal adjectives:

  • a dog-eat-dog competition
  • nineteenth-century song-and-dance numbers
  • A well-trained athlete is essential for any team.
  • He was a well-rounded student.
  • Scientists have engaged in a century-old debate.

Do not hyphenate if a stand-alone phrase comes after the verb:

  • Mark is an athlete who is well trained.
  • The neighborhood is middle class.

Do not hyphenate if phrase begins with an -ly word:

  • a sharply worded reprimand
  • but … a not-so-sharply-worded reprimand

Do not add spaces before or after en- and em-dashes.

Use en-dashes for duration (date, time, and page spans). En-dashes are slightly longer than hyphens.

  • The years 1992–1998 were prosperous.
  • The conference will take place April 7–10.
  • Please see pages 23–25 for detailed information.

Use em-dashes for accentuated appositives (i.e., text dashes). Em-dashes are slightly longer than en-dashes.

  • That is not to say that everyone has been thought equally capable—or capable at all—of reasoning.

Single Quotations Marks (Apostrophes)
Use “smart” single quotation marks (i.e., curved appropriately to the right or the left). Use apostrophes for abbreviations where applicable:

  • The ’60s or the 1960s (not the 60’s or the 1960’s)
  • Exception: She minded her Ps and Qs.

Use single quotation marks within quotations:

  • “This is the ‘bi-part’ soul to which the narrator refers” …

Double Quotation Marks
Use “smart” double quotation marks (rather than “non-curved” quotation marks). Use double quotation marks throughout a manuscript (except for apostrophes and quotes within a non-block quote). Place commas and periods inside quotation marks. Place colons, semicolons, questions marks, and exclamation points outside quotation marks, unless a question mark or exclamation point forms part of the quoted matter.

Place quotations less than forty (40) words in quotation marks:

  • In Dupin, there is “a peculiar analytic ability” (Poe 1989, 9).

Block Quotations
For quotations forty (40) words in length or longer:

  • Do not use quotation marks;
  • Place in a new paragraph;
  • Indent the entire paragraph on each side; and
  • Use double quotation marks for direct quotes within the block (if there are any).


Numbers and Ordinals (spelled out)
Spell out numbers and ordinals zero through one hundred. Hyphenate twenty-one through ninety-nine; all others leave open

  • The party included eight people.
  • The ninth century; the twenty-first century …
  • Robert stole second base at the top of the eighth inning.
  • Three new parking lots will provide spaces for 540 cars.

Spell out an approximate number if it can be expressed succinctly.

  • Nearly a thousand, half a million, about four hundred …
  • The building is three hundred years old.
  • A millennium is a period of one thousand years.
  • An estimated fifty million Americans lack insurance.

Spell out fractions standing alone.

  • A two-thirds majority is required.
  • Of the participants, about a third had stage-four breast cancer.

Spell out numbers, no matter how large, when they begin sentences.

  • One hundred and ten candidates were accepted.
  • Exception: 1999 was a very good year.

Numbers and Ordinals (in figures)
Use figures for numbers and ordinals above one hundred.

  • The population of our village now stands at 5,893.
  • The city’s population is about 575,000.
  • She found herself in 125th position out of 360.
  • Use 21 million, not 21,000,000 (don’t carry beyond two decimals)
  • In the United States, 48.37 million individuals lack insurance.

Except at the beginning of a sentence, percentages are usually expressed in numerals with the word “per cent” spelled out.

  • Of the participants, 36 per cent had stage-four breast cancer.
  • With 90–95 per cent of the work complete, we can relax.
  • Fifty per cent of marriages end in divorce.

Sums of Money

  • $3
  • US$22.5 billion
  • €39 million
  • C$300
  • NZ$749

Time of Day and Years

  • Her day begins at five o’clock. Her day begins at 5 a.m.
  • The meeting continued until half past three.
  • The meeting began at 9:45 a.m. and was adjourned by noon.
  • The year 1999 was marked by war in Yugoslavia.
  • The 1890s marked a crucial time in U.S. law.
  • Second Wave Feminism began in the ’60s.