Style Guide

For full details regarding the formatting of manuscripts, please see the JBI Style Guide or the JBI Instructions for Authors.

Ensuring your paper conforms to Journal of Bioethical Inquiry style will increase the speed of the reviewing and copy-editing processes and reduce overall time to publication. Please follow all instructions carefully.

Manuscript Formatting

Please save the main body of your manuscript as a Microsoft Word .doc file (not .docx). Supplemental materials can be saved in other formats such as TIFF, GIF, JPEG, EPS, PPT, PICT, Excel, Tar, and Postscript (for figures). However, Editorial Manager does not accept PDFs.

Font, Margins, and Spacing

  • Times New Roman, 12-point font
  • 1 (one) space (not two) following ending punctuation between sentences
  • 1.5 line spacing (and remove all padding Word adds before/after paragraphs)
  • Left-justification (“align text left”)
  • Standard/reasonable margins (e.g., 1 inch on all sides)
  • 1 (one) space before and after ellipses but no (0) spaces before and after en- and em-dashes
  • No more than six (6) footnotes

Title Page

The title page should be formatted as follows (please include the headings in brackets and pay attention to bolding and case):

[issue] [category] Add Category Name Here
[title] Add a Main Title Here Using Title Case
[subtitle] If Applicable, Add a Subtitle Here Using Title Case
[author(s)] First A. Last; Second B. Last

[author details] F. A. Last [corresponding author] Name of Affiliated Organization
City, State/Province Postal Code COUNTRY

S. B. Last
Name of Affiliated Organization
City, State/Province Postal Code COUNTRY

Abstract Add full abstract in here. Abstracts should be about 150–200 words.

Keywords Xxxxxx; Xxxxxx; Xxxxxx; Xxxxxx; Xxxxxx; Xxxxxx
Keywords should be separated by a semicolon and employ “Sentence case.”
For example: Bioethics; Informed consent; End-of-life issues; Advance directives


Use title case and capitalize the principal words, including prepositions and conjunctions of four or more letters. Also, please note: the word “is” is a verb and should be capitalized in titles.

  • Manuscript Title (bold)
    Example: Art and Bioethics: Shifts in Understanding Across Genres
  • Section Heading 1 (bold)
    Example: Arts and Bioethics Programs
  • Section Heading 2 (plain text)
    Example: Arts and Bioethics Program, Croatia 2008
  • Section Heading 3 (italics)
    Example: The Exhibition


The JBI now publishes all papers using Oxford’s “British & World English” for spelling and hyphenation but punctuates according to The Chicago Manual of Style (e.g., double quotation marks, periods and commas inside quotation marks, etc.). Please consult both references (and the JBI Instructions for Authors) for assistance.

  1. Please use Oxford Dictionaries: British & World English.
    • Always use the first accepted spellings of words.
    • For example, “recognize” instead of “recognise,” etc.
    • Please note, you likely will have to look up many words. Please consult the print or online version of the Oxford dictionary, and do not rely on Microsoft Word’s spelling.
  2. Hyphenate compound words according to the Oxford dictionary (e.g., neo-liberal, non-compliance, socio-economic, etc.).
    • Again, you likely will have to look these up. Please do not rely on Microsoft Word’s spelling.

NOTE: Keep original spelling in all direct quotes and references.

Abbreviations and Spellings of Certain Words

  • Use jargon and abbreviations sparingly, stating in full at first use:
    • The Journal of Bioethical Inquiry (JBI) is a peer-reviewed publication.
  • “healthcare” (one word per Oxford)
    • Healthcare is a human right.
    • She is a healthcare professional.
  • “well-being”
  • Apostrophes
    • the three Rs
    • the 1600s (not the 1600’s)
    • the ’80s (not the 80’s)
  • U.S. or U.K. is an adjective, not a noun:
    • U.S. courts use the principle of stare decisis.
    • The United States has three branches in its federal government.
  • Use a lowercase “w” and “e” for the following:
    • web, website, web page, e-mail, and so forth
    • Exception: capitalize World Wide Web and Internet


Use the serial comma throughout (except when it is not used in the original text of direct quotations or in titles cited in references). Commas always go inside quotations marks.

  • I bought sugar, flour, and milk at the store.
  • He likes apples, macaroni and cheese, and quinoa.
  • When asked about the concept of “informed consent,” the patient indicated she had never heard of this term.

Periods always go inside quotation marks.

  • When asked about the concept of “informed consent,” the patient said she “did not understand this term.”

Add a space before and after an ellipsis.

  • Here is an example of … an ellipsis.

Do not capitalize the first word after a semicolon.

  • Bioethics is interdisciplinary; however, it is rooted in …

Capitalize the first word after a colon if the first word is a proper name or the colon introduces a series of sentences or questions (see CMOS § 6.64).

  • The key to NGO success: genuine international work.
  • The recession has hit hard: five banks failed today.
  • Some bioethicists have earned star-status: Arthur Caplan often is interviewed on national news in the United States.
  • Bioethicists have several choices: Should we be relegated to reactionary roles? Or should we secure the barn door before the horse has run wild?

Hyphenate phrasal adjectives:

  • a dog-eat-dog competition
  • nineteenth-century song-and-dance numbers
  • A well-trained athlete is essential for any team.
  • He was a well-rounded student.
  • Scientists have engaged in a century-old debate.

Do not hyphenate if a stand-alone phrase comes after the verb:

  • Mark is an athlete who is well trained.
  • The neighborhood is middle class.

Do not hyphenate if phrase begins with an -ly word:

  • a sharply worded reprimand
  • but … a not-so-sharply-worded reprimand

Do not add spaces before or after en- and em-dashes.

Use en-dashes for duration (date, time, and page spans). En-dashes are slightly longer than hyphens.

  • The years 1992–1998 were prosperous.
  • The conference will take place April 7–10.
  • Please see pages 23–25 for detailed information.

Use em-dashes for accentuated appositives (i.e., text dashes). Em-dashes are slightly longer than en-dashes.

  • That is not to say that everyone has been thought equally capable—or capable at all—of reasoning.

Single Quotations Marks (Apostrophes)
Use “smart” single quotation marks (i.e., curved appropriately to the right or the left). Use apostrophes for abbreviations where applicable:

  • The ’60s or the 1960s (not the 60’s or the 1960’s)
  • Exception: She minded her Ps and Qs.

Use single quotation marks within quotations:

  • “This is the ‘bi-part’ soul to which the narrator refers” …

Double Quotation Marks
Use “smart” double quotation marks (rather than “non-curved” quotation marks). Use double quotation marks throughout a manuscript (except for apostrophes and quotes within a non-block quote). Place commas and periods inside quotation marks. Place colons, semicolons, questions marks, and exclamation points outside quotation marks, unless a question mark or exclamation point forms part of the quoted matter.

Place quotations less than forty (40) words in quotation marks:

  • In Dupin, there is “a peculiar analytic ability” (Poe 1989, 9).

Block Quotations
For quotations forty (40) words in length or longer:

  • Do not use quotation marks;
  • Place in a new paragraph;
  • Indent the entire paragraph on each side; and
  • Use double quotation marks for direct quotes within the block (if there are any).


Numbers and Ordinals (spelled out)
Spell out numbers and ordinals zero through one hundred. Hyphenate twenty-one through ninety-nine; all others leave open

  • The party included eight people.
  • The ninth century; the twenty-first century  …
  • Robert stole second base at the top of the eighth inning.
  • Three new parking lots will provide spaces for 540 cars.

Spell out an approximate number if it can be expressed succinctly.

  • Nearly a thousand, half a million, about four hundred …
  • The building is three hundred years old.
  • A millennium is a period of one thousand years.
  • An estimated fifty million Americans lack insurance.

Spell out fractions standing alone.

  • A two-thirds majority is required.
  • Of the participants, about a third had stage-four breast cancer.

Spell out numbers, no matter how large, when they begin sentences.

  • One hundred and ten candidates were accepted.
  • Exception: 1999 was a very good year.

Numbers and Ordinals (in figures)
Use figures for numbers and ordinals above one hundred.

  • The population of our village now stands at 5,893.
  • The city’s population is about 575,000.
  • She found herself in 125th position out of 360.
  • Use 21 million, not 21,000,000 (don’t carry beyond two decimals)
  • In the United States, 48.37 million individuals lack insurance.

Except at the beginning of a sentence, percentages are usually expressed in numerals with the word “per cent” spelled out.

  • Of the participants, 36 per cent had stage-four breast cancer.
  • With 90–95 per cent of the work complete, we can relax.
  • Fifty per cent of marriages end in divorce.

Sums of Money

  • $3
  • US$22.5 billion
  • €39 million
  • C$300
  • NZ$749

Time of Day and Years

  • Her day begins at five o’clock. Her day begins at 5 a.m.
  • The meeting continued until half past three.
  • The meeting began at 9:45 a.m. and was adjourned by noon.
  • The year 1999 was marked by war in Yugoslavia.
  • The 1890s marked a crucial time in U.S. law.
  • Second Wave Feminism began in the ’60s.

In-Text Citations


Do not add a comma between author last name(s) and year of publication. Include all authors for sources with three (3) or fewer authors, using a serial comma before the “and.” If a source has four (4) or more authors, list the last name of the first author following by “et al.” Use a semicolon, not a comma, between listings of multiple sources.

Type Example
One Author (Smith 1998)
No Date or In Press (Smith n.d.) or (Smith forthcoming)
Two Authors (Smith and Jones 2000)
Three Authors (Smith, Jones, and Johnson 2007)
Four or More Authors (Smith et al. 1998)
Same Authors, Same Year (Smith and Jones 2000a, 2000b)
Same First Author, Same Year
(Include secondary authors as needed or add shortened title in quotation marks)
(Smith, Jones, et al. 2007)
(Smith, Williams, et al. 2007)
(Smith et al., “Giant Snails,” 2007)
(Smith et al., “Foreign Invaders,” 2007)
Multiple References (Smith 1998, 2001; Jones 2004)
Direct Quotations

Direct quotations must include page or paragraph (¶) numbers in in-text citations. Use double quotation marks for direct quotations and for words or phrases used in a special sense. Use single quotation marks for quotations within quotations. Direct quotations longer than forty (40) words should be set off clearly in an indented paragraph; quotation marks are not used for these longer block quotes.

Type Example
Single Page (Smith 1998, 22)
Multiple Pages (Smith 1998, 22–23)
Nonconsecutive Pages (Smith 1998, 22–23, 35)
Multiple References (Smith 1998, 22; Jones 2004, 5)
Unpaginated Electronic Work (Smith 1998, ¶6)
(Smith 1998, para. 6)
(Smith 1998, under “The Battleground”)
(Jones 2004, ¶3 under “Methods”)
Personal Communication (John Smith, pers. comm.)
E-Mail Message (John Smith, e-mail message to author, February 28, 2010)
Section Number (Smith 1998, sec. 24)
Equation (Smith 1998, eq. 87)
Volume Referenced (Smith 1998, vol. 2)
Volume Plus Page (Smith 1998, 2: 345)


Please list references at the end of the manuscript:

  • Use a hanging indentation (not hard returns and tabs)
  • Alphabetize by author last name
  • Use initials with periods for given and middle names, with no space in between
  • Place first author’s initials after the last name; all others precede the last name
  • Do not place year in parentheses
  • Use “Sentence case” for all titles listed in references
  • Do not place quotation marks around titles
  • Spell out the full name of journals (capitalizing “The” if part of the official name)
  • Italicize journal names and titles of books
  • List volume AND issue number for journal references
  • Do not condense page spans (256–277, not 256–77)
  • Use en-dashes for page spans (256–265, not 256-265)
Academic Journals
Type Example
One Author Smith, J.M. 1998. The origin of altruism. Nature 393(1): 639–640.
With DOI Friedman, J.W., and C. Mezzetti. 2001. Learning in games by random sampling. Journal of Economic Theory 98(1): 1–25. doi:10.1006/20002694.
2–6 Authors Bodenheimer, T., K. Grumbach, and R.A. Berenson. 2009. A lifeline for primary care. The New England Journal of Medicine 360(26): 2693–2696.
6+ Authors Owen, G.S., G. Szmuckler, G. Richardson, et al. 2009. Mental capacity and psychiatric in-patients: Implications for the new mental law in England and Wales. The British Journal of Psychiatry 195(3): 257–263.
Online Fanelli, D. 2009. How many scientists fabricate and falsify research? A systematic review and meta-analysis of survey data. PLoS One 4(5): e5738. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0005738.
No Issue Loomis, C.C. 1960. The structure and sympathy in Joyce’s “The dead.” PMLA 75: 149–151.
Month as Issue Muldoon, D.D. 1987. Daily life of the mountain rapper. Journal of the West 26(March–April): 14–20.
Season as Issue Myers, N., and R. Tucker. 1960. Deforestation in Central America: Spanish legacy and North American consumers. Environmental Review 19(Spring): 55–71.
No Volume Meyerovitch, E. 1959. The Gnostic manuscripts of Upper Egypt. Diogenes, no. 25: 84–117.
ePub Ahead of Print ten Have, M.T., A. van der Heide, J.P. Mackenbach, and I.D. de Beaufort. 2012. An ethical framework for prevention of overweight and obesity: A tool for thinking through a programme’s ethical aspects. European Journal of Public Health. ePub ahead of print, August 8. doi:10.1093/eurpub/cks052.
Forthcoming Smith, J., and B. Jones. Forthcoming. Article title goes in here. Journal Name 103(2).
No Date Cherry, K. No date. How to become a psychologist. Accessed April 6, 2011.
Public Media
Type Example
Newspaper Niederkorn, W.S. 2002. A scholar recants on his “Shakespeare” discovery. The New York Times, June 20, Arts section, Midwest edition, 1a–2a, 4a.
Magazine Martin, S. 2002. Sports-interview shocker. The New Yorker, May 6, 10–12, 15.
Online Reeves, J. 2001. A weighty issue: Ever-fatter kids. Interview with James Rosen. Time, March 14. Accessed April 3, 2010.
Unsigned The New York Times. 2002. In Texas, ad heats up for race for governor. July 30, 5b.
Book Review Gorman, J. 2002. Endangered species. Review of The last American man, by E. Gilbert. The New York Times Book Review, June 2, 22–23.
Presentation Doyle, B. 2002. Howling like dogs: Metaphorical language in Psalm 59. Paper presented at the annual international meeting for the Society of Biblical Literature, June 19–22, in Berlin, Germany.
Website Google. 2009. Google privacy policy. Last modified March 11. Accessed June 2, 2013.
Weblog Posner, R. 2010. Double exports in five years? The Becker-Posner Blog, February 21. Accessed January 11, 2011.
Comment Leppek, C. 2008. The orphanage. Chaosicon Blog, comment posted June 11. Accessed March 20, 2012.
Type Example
One Author Doniger, W. 1999. Splitting the difference: Gender and myth in Ancient Greece and India. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
2–6 Authors Laumann, E.O., J.H. Gagnon, R.T. Michael, and S. Michaels. 1994. The social organization of sexuality: Sexual practices in the United States. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
6+ Authors Churchill, R., P. Ferguson, S. Godinho, et al. 2013. Teaching: Making a difference. Sydney: John Wiley & Sons.
Multiple Editions Kerridge, I., M. Lowe, and C. Stewart. 2009. Ethics and law for the health professions, 3rd ed. Annandale, NSW: Federation Press.
Electronic Austen, J. 2007. Pride and prejudice, Kindle ed. New York: Penguin Classics.
Online Kurland, P.B., and R. Lerner, eds. 1987. The founders’ Constitution. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
Translated Bourdieu, P. 1990. The logic of practice. Translated by R. Nice. Stanford: Stanford University Press. Originally published as Les sens pratique (Paris: Les Éditions de Minuit, 1980).
Editor or Translator as Author Lattimore, R., trans. 1951. The Iliad of Homer. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
Editor or Translator with Author Bonnefoy, Y. 1995. New and selected poems. Edited by J. Naughton and A. Rudolf. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
Chapter in an Edited Book Wiese, A. 2006. “The house I live in”: Race, class, and African American suburban dreams in the postwar United States. In The new suburban history, edited by K.M. Kruse and T.J. Sugrue, 99–119. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
Preface or Forward Rieger, J. 1982. Introduction to Frankenstein; or, The modern Prometheus, by Mary Wollstonecraft Shelley, xi–xxxvii. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
Thesis or Dissertation Amundin, M. 1991. Click repetition rate patterns in communicative sounds from the harbour porpoise, Phocoena phocoena. PhD dissertation, Stockholm University.